Paper - I: Physics Syllabus

1. (a) Mechanics of Particles: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field  and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced  mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory reference  frames.

(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum  and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity,  angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation;  Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di  and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope. 

(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media:  Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity,  Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications. 

(d) Special Relativity: Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic  velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy  relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional  momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics. 

2. Waves and Optics:

(a) Waves: Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses  and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from  Huygens’ principle. 

(b) Geometrical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle; Matrix method in  paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic  and spherical aberrations.  

(c) Interference: Interference of light-Young’s experiment,  Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam  interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer. 

(d) Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.  

(e) Polarization and Modern Optics: Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index  fibres; Material dispersion, single mode fibres; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams;  Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications. 

3. Electricity and Magnetism:

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of  scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a  dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an  external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting  and dielectric spheres in a uniform  electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.  

(b) Current Electricity: Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits;  DC and AC circuits with R, L and C  components; Series and parallel resonances;  Quality factor; Principle of transformer. 

(c) Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting  theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic  field tensor, covariance of  Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction  at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel’s relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan-  Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law. 

4. Thermal and Statistical Physics:

(a) Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential;  van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport  phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and  Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius- Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases. 

(b) Statistical Physics: Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody  radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

PAPER - II: Physics Syllabus

1. Quantum Mechanics: Wave-particle dualitiy; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a  step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals;  Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.

2. Atomic and Molecular Physics: Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; Frank- Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance. 

3. Nuclear and Particle Physics: Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas; Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear  forces; Salient features of nuclear forces;  Shell model of the nucleus - successes and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion;  Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions; Conservation laws; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.

4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids - conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism:  dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications;  Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pn- p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and  oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan’s laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.

This is the complete list of optional subjects for civil services main examination. You have to opt for any one subject. Optional paper consists of two papers of 250 marks each. Click on the subject name to view its syllabus.