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(Answers must be written in Kashmiri)


1. Genealogical relationship of the Kashmiri language: various theories.

2. Areas of occurrence and dialects (geographical/ social)

3. Phonology and grammar:

  • Vowel and consonant system;
  • Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections;
  • Verbs: various types and tenses.

4. Syntactic structure:

  • Simple , active and declarative statments;
  • Coordination;
  • Relativisation.


1. Kashmiri literature in the 14th century (Socio-cultural and intellectual background with special reference to Lal Dyad and Sheikhul Alam)

2. Nineteenth century Kashmiri literature (development of various genres: vatsun; ghazal; and mathnavi).

3. Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century (with special reference to Mahjoor and Azad; various literary influences).

4. Modern Kashmiri literature (with special refernece to the development of the short story, drama, novel and nazm).


(Answers must be written in Kashmiri)


1. Intensive study of Kashmiri poetry upto the nineteenth century:

  • Lal Dyad
  • Sheikhul Aalam
  • Habba Khatoon

2. Kashmiri poetry: 19th Century

  • Mahmood Gami (Vatsans)
  • Maqbool Shah (Gulrez)
  • Rasool Mir (Ghazals)
  • Abdul Ahad Nadim (N'at)
  • Krishanjoo Razdan (Shiv Lagun)
  • Sufi Poets (Text in Sanglaab, published  by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)

3. Twentieth Century Kashmiri poetry (text in Azich Kashir Shairi, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)

4. Literary criticism and research work: development and various trends.


1. An analytical study of the short story in Kashmiri.

  • Afsana Majmu'a, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
  • Kashur Afsana Az, published by the Sahitya Akademi
  • Hamasar Kashur Afsana, published by the Sahitya Akademi The following short story writers only: Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din, Kamil, Hari Krishan Kaul, Hraday Kaul Bharti, Bansi Nirdosh, Gulshan Majid.

2. Novel in Kashmiri:

  • Mujrim by G.N. Gowhar
  • Marun-Ivan Ilyichun, (Kashmiri version of Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Iiyich (Published by Kashmiri Deptt).

3. Drama in Kashmiri

  • Natuk Kariv Band, by Hari Krishan Kaul
  • Qk Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu. published by Sahitya Akademi.
  • Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar, published by Sahitya Akademi.

4. Kashmiri Folk Literature:

  • Kashur Luki Theatre by Mohammad Subhan Bhagat, published by Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
  • Kashiry Luki Beeth (all volumes) published by the J & K Cultural Academy.

This is the complete list of optional subjects for civil services main examination. You have to opt for any one subject. Optional paper consists of two papers of 250 marks each. Click on the subject name to view its syllabus.