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(Answers must be written in Sindhi) (Arabic or Devanagari script)



  • Origin and evolution of Sindhi language- views of different scholars.
  • Significant linguistic features of Sindhi language, including those pertaining to its phonology, morphology and syntax.
  • Major dialects of the Sindhi language.
  • Sindhi vocabularly-stages of its growth, including those in the pre-partition and post-partition periods.
  • Historical study of various Writing Systems (Scripts) of Sindhi.
  • Changes in the structure of Sindhi language in India, after partition, due to influence of other languages and social conditions.


2. Sindhi literature through the ages in context of socio-cultural conditions in the respective periods :

  • Early medieval literature upto 1350 A.D. including folk literature.
  • Late medicval period from 1350 A.D. to 1850 A.D.
  • Renaissance period from 1850 A.D. to 1947 A.D.
  • Modern period from 1947 and onwards. (Literary genres in Modern Sindhi literature and experiments in poetry, drama, novel, short story, essay, literary criticism, biography, autobiography, memoirs, and travelogues.)


(Answers must be written in Sindhi) (Arabic or Devanagari script). This paper will require the first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed
to test the candidates’ critical ability.


References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.

(1) Poetry

  • “Shah Jo Choond Shair” : ed. H.I. Sadarangani, Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
  • “Sachal Jo Choond Kalam” : ed. Kalyan  B. Advani Published by Sahitya Akademi (Kafis only)
  • “Sami-a-ja Choond Sloka” : ed. B.H. Nagrani Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
  • “Shair-e-Bewas” : by Kishinchand Bewas (“Saamoondi Sipoon” portion only)
  • “Roshan Chhanvro” : Narayan Shyam
  • “Virhange Khanpoije Sindhi Shair jee Choond” : ed. H.I. Sadarangani Published by Sahitya Akademi

(2) Drama

  • “Behtareen Sindhi Natak” (One-act Plays) : Edited by M. Kamal Published by Gujarat Sindhi Academy.
  • “Kako Kaloomal” (Full-length Play) : by Madan Jumani


References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.

  • ‘Pakheeara Valar Khan Vichhrya’ (Novel) : by Gobind Malhi
  • ‘Sat Deenhan’ (Novel) : by Krishan Khatwani
  • ‘Choond Sindhi Kahanyoon’ (Short Stories) Vol. III. : Edited by Prem Prakash, Published by Sahitya Akademi.
  • ‘Bandhan’ (Short Stories) : Sundari Uttamchandani
  • ‘Behtareen Sindhi Mazmoon’ (Essays) : Edited by Hiro Thakur, published by Gujarat Sindhi Akademi.
  • ‘Sindhi Tanqeed’ (Criticism) : Edited by Harish Vaswani : Published by Sahitya Akademi.
  • ‘Mumhinjee Hayati-a ja Sona Ropa varqa’ (Autobiography) : by Popati Hiranandani
  • “Dr. Choithram Gidwani” (Biography) : by Vishnu Sharma

This is the complete list of optional subjects for civil services main examination. You have to opt for any one subject. Optional paper consists of two papers of 250 marks each. Click on the subject name to view its syllabus.